Information for College Students


In this section you will find informative details regarding Chronic Kidney disease (CKD), its diagnosis and usual risk factors. If you are a student, this is the right place to start!
Kidney functions:
Kidneys are two bean-shaped organs each consisting of approximately one million nephrons(kidney’s structural and functional units). The primary functions of kidneys include blood filtering of various bodily waste products and toxins, as well as stabilizing the level of electrolytes and fluids present in the body. Therefore, kidneys play a major role in the homeostasis of our body. Additionally, these organs produce several enzymes and hormones such as renin, biologically active form of vitamin D, or erythropoietin.
Chronic kidney disease:
CKD is the progressive loss of renal function over time. Due to its progressive nature, complications, and adverse clinical outcomes, it is considered a major health and financial burden in modern societies. Diabetic nephropathy, lupus nephritis, and/or IgA nephropathy are examples of diseases that are related to CKD.
CKD diagnosis and stages:
Diagnosis of kidney diseases is based on changes in serum creatinine levels and/or proteinuria, or renal biopsy findings.
There are 5 stages of CKD. Each stage is characterized by a progressive loss of kidney function and increased disease severity. CKD stages are defined based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) which is indicative of how rapidly the kidneys filter blood.
eGFR formulas:
Different formulas can be applied to calculate eGFR, including the following:



Variables included


Serum creatinine level, gender, age, weight

Modification of Diet in Renal Disease

Serum creatinine level. gender, age, ethnicity

Schwartz (for children)[E1] 

Serum creatinine, height

 [E1]Perhaps add with superscript references here?

kidney 1

CKD risk factors:
A variety of risk factors can lead to CKD, including demographic (i.e. age), lifestyle (i.e. smoking, obesity), and clinical (i.e. obesity) characteristics, as well as other health conditions (i.e. hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc).
risk factors


Clinical outcomes of CKD progression:
CKD may progress to a marked decrease in renal function, ultimately leading to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and increased mortality




Issues and challenges:
The issues and challenges related to CKD management currently include:
• Inter-variability diminishes the effectiveness of applied diagnostic methods;
• Renal biopsy is the current gold standard for diagnosis. Novel noninvasive biomarkers for detecting early CKD stages and monitoring disease progression are required.
• Understanding the pathophysiological mechanism of CKD may facilitate the selection of the appropriate treatment, thus delaying or deterring CKD progression.
2) Braun L, Sood V, Hogue S, Lieberman B, Copley-Merriman C. High burden and unmet patient needs in chronic kidney disease. Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis, 5, 151-163 (2012).
3) Baumgarten M, Gehr T. Chronic kidney disease: detection and evaluation. Am Fam Physician, 84(10), 1138-1148 (2011).
4) Staples A, Wong C. Risk factors for progression of chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Pediatr, 22(2), 161-169 (2010).





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